Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Comparison Guide

The Caribbean region is home to some of the most beautiful and iconic island nations in the world. With swaying palm trees, white sand beaches, turquoise waters and vibrant cultures, it’s no wonder the Caribbean is one of the world’s top tourist destinations.

More than just a tropical paradise, the Caribbean is also home to some of the oldest and most respected citizenship by investment programs in the world. For high net worth individuals and families seeking a second citizenship and passport through investment, the Caribbean offers excellent options with attractive benefits.

In this comprehensive guide, we will provide an in-depth comparison of the five available Caribbean citizenship by investment programs and help you determine which one is best suited for your needs.

Overview of Caribbean CBI Programs

There are currently five Caribbean countries that offer citizenship by investment – Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts & Nevis, and St. Lucia. Each country offers a variety of investment options. These include contributing to government funds, purchasing real estate, or investing in businesses.

Minimum investment amounts range from $100,000 in Antigua & Barbuda and Dominica to $250,000 in St. Kitts & Nevis. The time required to obtain citizenship also varies, but generally takes 3-4 months from submission of the application to receipt of the passport.

Key benefits offered by all Caribbean CBI programs include:

  • Visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to over 140 countries, including the EU Schengen Area, the United Kingdom, Singapore and Hong Kong.
  • No requirement to reside in the country before or after citizenship.
  • Lifetime citizenship that can be passed on to future generations.
  • No taxation on worldwide income.
  • Dual citizenship allowed without having to give up current citizenship.
  • High quality of life, favorable tax policies and business opportunities.
  • Ability to own property and operate businesses in the country.
  • Political and economic stability.

Caribbean Citizenship by Investment Program Comparison Table

Country Minimum Investment (Single Applicant) Processing Time Visa-Free Access Real Estate Option Benefits
Antigua & Barbuda $100,000 3-4 months Over 150 countries $200,000 – Affordable for families Straightforward application
Dominica $100,000 2-3 months Over 140 countries $200,000 – Most affordable Fastest processing, Highly reputed
Grenada $150,000 2-3 months Over 140 countries $220,000 E-2 visa access to USA
Grenada $150,000 2-3 months Over 140 countries $220,000 E-2 visa access to USA, Visa-free to China
St. Kitts & Nevis $150,000 2-4 months Nearly 160 countries $200,000 Most visa-free countries, Premium passport

While the programs have many similarities, they also have some key differences that set them apart. We will explore the unique features of each country’s CBI program in more detail.

Antigua & Barbuda

Antigua & Barbuda is a twin-island nation located in the heart of the Caribbean. It offers citizenship through three investment options:

  1. National Development Fund (NDF) – Non-refundable contribution of $100,000 for a single applicant, $125,000 for a family of four. This is the most popular option.
  2. Real Estate Investment – Minimum investment of $200,000 in government-approved real estate.
  3. Business Investment – Invest $1.5 million in an eligible business.

The Citizenship by Investment Program in Antigua & Barbuda was established in 2013 and offers a straightforward application process with multiple options for applicants.

Some key benefits include:

  • Citizenship in 3-4 months.
  • Visa-free access to over 150 destinations including the United Kingdom, EU Schengen Area, Hong Kong and Singapore.
  • No residency requirement – allows for economic citizenship.
  • Dual citizenship allowed.
  • Citizenship extends to spouse, dependents and descendants.
  • No interview, education or management experience required.
  • Business-friendly environment and stable democracy based on British law.

For families, Antigua & Barbuda offers good value – $125,000 for a family of four under the NDF option. The passport also offers great freedom of travel. The CBI program has an excellent reputation for efficiency and convenience.


Dominica is an island nation located between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1993, Dominica has offered a citizenship by investment program with the following options

  1. Government Fund Option – Minimum contribution of $100,000 per applicant to the Economic Diversification Fund or $175,000 for a family of up to 4 persons.
  2. Real Estate Option – Minimum $200,000 investment in government-approved real estate projects.

As the world’s best citizenship by investment program for four consecutive years, Dominica offers an affordable path to second citizenship on a beautiful Caribbean island.

Advantages of Dominica’s CBI Program:

  • Citizenship guaranteed if all requirements are met.
  • Only $100,000 minimum investment – affordable for families.
  • Citizenship in an average of 2-3 months.
  • Visa-free access to over 140 countries.
  • No residency requirement – allows for economic citizenship.
  • Dual citizenship allowed.
  • Citizenship can include spouse, children and parents.

Dominica has a strong international reputation with an excellent due diligence process. The real estate investment option offers the chance to own property in the Caribbean. However, most applicants choose the more affordable government fund route. Overall, Dominica offers a high quality CBI program with very reasonable investment thresholds.


The three-island nation of Grenada lies just north of Trinidad & Tobago. Its citizenship by investment program was launched in 2013 and offers four routes:

  1. National Transformation Fund – Requires a contribution of $150,000 (single applicant) or $200,000 (family of up to 4). This is the most popular option.
  2. Real Estate Investment – Minimum $220,000 investment in government-approved real estate.
  3. Business Investment – Invest $350,000 in an eligible business.
  4. Public Project – Contribute a minimum of $350,000 to specific government projects.

Notable benefits of the Grenada Citizenship Program include:

  • Citizenship within an average of 2-3 months.
  • No residency requirements.
  • Citizenship in an average of 2-3 months.
  • Dual citizenship is recognized.
  • Citizens can include spouses, dependents, siblings, parents.
  • Business-friendly economy and favorable tax policies.

A major advantage of Grenada is access to the E-2 investor visa for the United States, which allows Grenadian citizens to live and operate a business in the USA. The real estate option also provides the opportunity to own property in the Caribbean. Overall, Grenada offers a high quality CBI program with competitive investment thresholds.

St. Kitts & Nevis

The two-island federation of St. Kitts & Nevis offers one of the longest running citizenship by investment programs, established in 1984. There are currently two options:

  1. Sustainable Growth Fund (SGF) – Requires a single applicant to contribute $150,000. A family of up to 4 pays $195,000.
  2. Real Estate Investment – Minimum investment of $200,000 in selected real estate to be held for 7 years.

Benefits of the St. Kitts & Nevis CBI Program include:

  • Expedited application process within 2-4 months.
  • Visa-free access to nearly 160 destinations.
  • No visit or residency requirements before or after citizenship.
  • Dual citizenship allowed.
  • Citizens may include spouses and dependents.
  • High standard of living and developed infrastructure.

St. Kitts & Nevis is known for its efficiency and reliability within the investment migration industry. The country has a strong international brand. It offers the most visa-free travel opportunities in the Caribbean. However, investment thresholds are higher than other programs. Overall, St. Kitts & Nevis offers a premium CBI program for those seeking the strongest Caribbean passport.

Saint Lucia

The island nation of St. Lucia offers several investment options under its CBI program:

  1. National Economic Fund (NEF) – Non-refundable contribution of $100,000 for a single applicant.
  2. Real Estate Investment – Minimum $300,000 investment in selected properties.
  3. Business Project – $3.5 million investment in an eligible business.
  4. Government Bond – Purchase $500,000 of non-interest bearing bonds to be held for 5 years.

St. Lucia offers great flexibility with four investment routes to citizenship. Benefits include:

  • Citizenship typically within 3-4 months.
  • Visa-free access to over 145 destinations.
  • No residency requirement before or after.
  • Dual citizenship allowed.
  • Citizenship includes spouse, children, parents and grandparents.

As shown, each CBI program has unique benefits. The best option for you will depend on your budget, desired timeline, travel priorities, and whether you are considering real estate investment or business ownership.

Compare CBI Program Timelines

How quickly you can become a citizen is one of the most important considerations for applicants. The estimated time from application to approval ranges from 2-4 months across the Caribbean programs.

Dominica is the fastest, taking only 2-3 months in most cases. This is closely followed by Grenada and St. Lucia with an average of 2-4 months. Antigua & Barbuda and St. Kitts & Nevis tend to have slightly longer processing times of 3-4 months.

These timeframes can vary depending on the efficiency of the government, the volume of applications, and the completeness of the applicant’s documentation. But overall, the Caribbean offers some of the fastest citizenship timelines in the world.

Compare Visa-Free Travel Access

Gaining greater freedom to travel is a major motivation for many individuals and families considering CBI programs. The visa-free access offered by Caribbean countries spans the globe.

St. Kitts & Nevis CBI offers the most visa-free countries at nearly 160, including the EU, UK, Singapore and Hong Kong. The other four Caribbean nations offer visa-free access to over 140 destinations, with some variation between them.

For example, a Dominican passport provides visa-free access to Russia and China, while Grenada provides access to the United States E-2 visa. So reviewing your specific travel priorities can help determine which country is the best fit.

Compare program reputations

Over decades of operation, each country has developed a reputation in the investment migration industry. The CBI Index, an independent study published by PWM Magazine, is considered one of the benchmarks for evaluating program quality.

In the 2022 CBI Index, St. Kitts & Nevis tied for 1st place with Dominica and has consistently ranked near the top. Antigua & Barbuda and St. Lucia ranked 3rd and 5th respectively. Grenada ranked 8th out of 13 programs evaluated.

Overall, these results underscore the dominance of the Caribbean among the most highly regarded CBI programs in the world. Dominica and St. Kitts & Nevis stand out for their exceptional due diligence, efficiency, convenience and attractiveness to investors.

Compare Real Estate Investment Options

Some investors may wish to obtain citizenship while owning physical real estate in their new country of citizenship. Four of the five Caribbean programs offer real estate investment opportunities:

  • Antigua & Barbuda: $200,000 minimum purchase price.
  • Dominica: $200,000 minimum investment in select resorts.
  • Grenada: $220,000 minimum in approved developments.
  • St. Kitts & Nevis: $200,000 minimum investment.
  • St. Lucia: $300,000 minimum investment required.

The real estate market in most of the Caribbean is productive, with values often increasing over time. This provides attractive opportunities for investors who wish to acquire citizenship passively through real estate ownership. The real estate option allows investors to potentially generate returns while obtaining citizenship.

Compare application requirements

The application process has many common requirements across programs:

  • Primary applicant must be at least 18 years old.
  • Clean criminal record with no prior convictions.
  • Proof of legal source of funds.
  • Comprehensive background checks.
  • Minimum upfront investment into a government escrow account.
  • Processing, due diligence and passport fees.
  • Interview may be required in some cases.
  • Oath of allegiance required.
  • Basic English required.

However, some countries such as Dominica and St. Kitts & Nevis have slightly more stringent qualification criteria. For example, a professional background check and interview are required. Antigua & Barbuda has a more straightforward application process.

In most cases, dependents such as spouses, children, siblings, parents, and grandparents may be included in the primary applicant. The age of dependents varies by program, but is generally under 18 for children and 55+ for parents/grandparents.

Compare dual citizenship rules

One major advantage is that all five Caribbean countries allow dual citizenship under their CBI programs. This means that investors do not have to give up their current citizenship.

Dual citizenship gives citizens the flexibility to hold passports from multiple countries and retain the benefits of each. However, applicants should always check the rules of their home country to ensure that obtaining a second citizenship is allowed without penalty.

Compare Tax Policies

The Caribbean is known for its favorable tax policies, especially when it comes to offshore banking and foreign income.

None of the five CBI countries tax their citizens’ worldwide income. You may still be required to pay taxes where the income is earned, but income earned abroad is exempt from local taxation.

In addition, some countries have tax-free regimes. For example, in St. Kitts & Nevis, Dominica, and Antigua & Barbuda, you can completely avoid paying income, capital gains, wealth, and inheritance taxes under their citizenship programs.

Compare country demographics

Although geographically close, the Caribbean islands have their own distinct cultures and demographics that are worth comparing:

  • Population: Ranges from about 50,000 in Dominica to over 300,000 in Antigua & Barbuda.
  • Official language: English is the primary language on all five islands.
  • Land area: Varies from country to country, with some consisting of single islands and others having multiple islands.
  • GDP per capita: Varies from about $7,000 in Dominica to over $20,000 in Antigua and St. Kitts & Nevis. Tourism and agriculture are the main industries.
  • Government: All five countries are parliamentary democracies and constitutional monarchies with legal systems based on British common law.
  • Geography: Year-round tropical climate. Surrounded by oceans with beautiful beaches. Mostly flat terrain of volcanic origin. Prone to storms during certain seasons.

These dynamics show the diversity of the region. While English speaking and stable, each island country has its own allure, culture and economy worth researching before finalizing your investment.

Pros & Cons of Caribbean CBI Programs

Across the board, the Caribbean offers excellent citizenship by investment opportunities. However, there are some key pros and potential cons to consider:

  • Tropical climate, island lifestyle and natural beauty.
  • Visa-free travel to the EU, UK and many other countries.
  • No residency requirements before or after citizenship.
  • Dual citizenship allowed without restrictions.
  • Citizenship can include family members.
  • No taxation on worldwide income.
  • Confidential application process.
  • Fast processing time to obtain citizenship.
  • High standard of living compared to other CBI jurisdictions.
  • Stable democracies with histories based on British law.
  • High fees compared to other CBI programs worldwide.
  • Property prices and cost of living are relatively high on most islands.
  • Small countries with sometimes underdeveloped infrastructure.
  • Hurricanes and storms pose risks during certain seasons.
  • Perception as “tax havens” – challenges in accessing bank accounts.
  • Not part of the US E-2 visa agreement (except Grenada).

Overall, the Caribbean offers a very attractive quality of life, safety, stability, freedom to travel, confidentiality, and tax benefits through its citizenship programs. The excellent education, infrastructure and business opportunities on many islands also make them ideal for families and investors.

However, the investment required is higher than other CBI options in emerging markets. Proper due diligence is essential given the offshore status of some jurisdictions. But for those able to meet the investment thresholds, Caribbean CBI offers world-class mobility.

Who Should Consider Caribbean CBI?

Based on the pros and cons discussed, here are some of the key applicant types that can benefit greatly from Caribbean citizenship by investment:

  • Families seeking greater freedom to travel and educational opportunities.
  • Investors seeking to expand their business operations globally.
  • Entrepreneurs who need greater access to capital markets.
  • Those facing political instability or uncertainty in their home country.
  • Individuals seeking to optimize their tax strategies.
  • Real estate investors looking to purchase tropical real estate.
  • Applicants who need a quick and easy path to alternative citizenship.
  • Anyone seeking visa-free access to Europe, the UK and other countries.

With visa-free travel to over 140 countries, stable democracies, high standards of living and excellent global reputations, it’s easy to see why the Caribbean CBI programs are so attractive. Citizenship in paradise is available in the Caribbean.

The Bottom Line

The Caribbean region undoubtedly offers some of the best citizenship by investment programs in the world. With idyllic tropical islands, excellent visa-free travel access, and tax advantages, it’s easy to see the appeal of obtaining a second passport from this part of the world.

Based on our extensive comparison, here are some final recommendations for choosing the right Caribbean CBI program:

  • For families on a budget, Antigua & Barbuda offers very good value – just $125,000 for a family of four to gain citizenship.
  • Dominica is world-renowned and offers the most affordable citizenship starting at $100,000 through their Government Fund option.
  • Grenada is ideal for those seeking access to the United States E-2 investor visa as citizens.
  • St. Kitts & Nevis is a premium choice with the most visa-free travel and a trusted international brand. However, it comes at a higher price.
  • St. Lucia offers the most flexibility for investors with four different investment routes available.
  • Real estate investment opportunities are available on several islands for those wishing to own Caribbean real estate.
  • Fast processing within 3-4 months makes the Caribbean one of the fastest routes to second citizenship.

While each program has its pros and cons, overall the Caribbean stands as the gold standard for citizenship by investment. For high net worth individuals and families seeking greater global mobility, political and economic stability, confidentiality, and a better quality of life, the Caribbean should be strongly considered.

With our comprehensive comparison guide, you now have the key information you need to select the best Caribbean CBI program for your specific situation. To ensure a smooth and efficient experience, our experts can also provide personalized assistance in selecting the right program, submitting your application, and guiding you through the entire process.

Contact us today to begin your journey to citizenship through investment in an amazing Caribbean nation. The vacation lifestyle you’ve always dreamed of can become a reality.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the least expensive Caribbean citizenship program?

The cheapest Caribbean citizenship by investment program is offered by Dominica. Through their Government Fund option, a single applicant can obtain citizenship for an investment of $100,000. For a family of up to 4 members, the cost is $175,000.

Which Caribbean country processes CBI applications the fastest?

Dominica is known for having the fastest processing time among the Caribbean CBI programs, with citizenship often approved within 2-3 months of application submission.

Which Caribbean passport has the most visa-free countries?

The St. Kitts & Nevis passport provides visa-free access to nearly 160 global destinations, the most among the Caribbean CBI countries. It offers very high visa-free access to Europe, the United Kingdom and many other nations.

Can I get Caribbean citizenship without visiting the country?

Yes, all Caribbean countries offering CBI programs allow you to obtain citizenship without ever having to visit or reside in the country. There are no minimum residency requirements before or after obtaining citizenship through investment.

Is buying real estate the only investment option?

No, most Caribbean programs offer donation, government fund or business investment options beyond the purchase of real estate. However, real estate investment for citizenship is available in certain countries.

Do these Caribbean passports allow access to the USA and Canada?

Unfortunately, Caribbean CBI passports (except Grenada) do not allow visa-free entry to the USA or Canada. Most countries around the world still require visas for these North American nations.

What are the requirements to apply for a Caribbean CBI?

The general requirements are: to be at least 18 years of age, to have a clean criminal record, to provide proof of funds, to pass a background check, to make a qualifying investment, to pay all fees, to provide biometric data and to swear an oath of allegiance.

How much does Caribbean citizenship cost for a family?

Costs vary by program, but roughly range from $100,000 for a family of 4 in Antigua to $350,000 for a family of 4 in St. Kitts & Nevis. Additional minor children/dependents can usually be included at little or no additional cost.

What is the timeline for obtaining Caribbean citizenship?

Most Caribbean CBI programs take 2-4 months from application to approval and passport issuance. Some countries may be slightly faster or slower.

Do I have to speak English to qualify for Caribbean citizenship?

Yes, fluency in English is required as all Caribbean countries offering CBI programs are English speaking nations. A basic understanding of English must be demonstrated during the application process.

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